July 21, 2024
  • The Coca-Cola Company has a somewhat complex matrix organizational structure with geographic divisions, product divisions, business-type units, and functional groups.
  • Coca-Cola has a total of six business segments, with four of these geographic divisions and the remainder business-type units for the company’s acquired brands and bottling operations. In 2021, the company introduced 9 new business units to eliminate the duplication of resources and introduce new products more quickly.
  • Product-based divisions help Coca-Cola manage a portfolio of approximately 200 brands, while there are also various functional groups to support business operations in multiple departments.
Department Type of Structure Structure Details Advantages Drawbacks
Global Business Units Geographic Structure – Coca-Cola is organized into global business units (GBUs) that oversee specific geographic regions, including North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific, and Global Ventures. Each GBU has its own leadership and adapts strategies to regional market needs. – Tailored approach to regional markets. Quick response to market demands. Local market insights. Coordination challenges between GBUs. Potential duplication of efforts.
Functional Departments Functional Structure – Various functional departments like marketing, finance, supply chain, and HR. These departments provide specialized expertise in their respective areas and support global operations. – Efficient use of functional expertise. Streamlined processes within departments. Potential communication challenges. Decision-making delays.
Coca-Cola Bottlers Network Structure – Coca-Cola’s products are primarily distributed through independent bottling partners worldwide. The company’s core organization focuses on coordination, marketing, and brand management, while bottlers handle production and distribution. – Cost-effective distribution model. Focus on core competencies like branding and marketing. Potential challenges in aligning strategies with independent bottlers. Limited control over production and distribution.
Corporate Functions Functional Structure – Corporate functions like finance, legal, IT, and sustainability. These functions provide centralized support and services to the entire organization. Operate independently from GBUs and bottlers. – Efficient resource allocation. Consistency in global operations. Standardized processes. Potential disconnect from GBUs and bottlers. Limited specialization.
Strategic Business Units Hybrid Structure – Coca-Cola has various strategic business units (SBUs) responsible for specific product categories, such as sparkling beverages, juices, and dairy. SBUs combine product-focused teams with functional expertise. – Specialized product focus and innovation. Expertise in specific product categories. Potential conflicts between SBUs and functional departments. Complexity in balancing product and functional roles.
Ventures and Investments Hybrid Structure – Ventures and Investments division explores new opportunities, investments, and partnerships to drive innovation and growth. It combines innovation-focused teams with financial and strategic experts. – Pursuit of new growth avenues and innovations. Synergy between innovation and financial expertise. Complexity in aligning innovation with traditional operations. Potential risk associated with new ventures.

Origin story

The Coca-Cola Company was founded in 1892 by Asa Griggs Candler who purchased a beverage brand and recipe from pharmacist John Stith Pemberton. After three short years, Coca-Cola was available in every state in the union.

Today, the Coca-Cola brand is one of the most valuable in the world and is available in all but two of the world’s 195 countries. To manage its vast global operations, the company has a somewhat complex matrix organizational structure with geographic divisions, product divisions, business-type units, and functional groups.

Interested in learning more about how this gigantic company is structured? Let’s delve into the details below.

Geographic divisions 

The Coca-Cola Company is structured according to four geographic divisions not unlike other companies with similar reach. 

These divisions, which the company calls segments, are:

  1. Europe, Middle East & Africa (EMEA).
  2. Latin America.
  3. North America, and
  4. Asia Pacific.

Business-type units

The company also has two non-geographic divisions which it also calls segments:

  1. Global Ventures (GV) – this was a unit that was created after Coca-Cola acquired coffee chain Costa Ltd in 2019. Today, the Global Ventures unit houses any other brand, acquisition, or investment the company feels it can scale globally. This includes energy drinks, juices, smoothies, and tea.
  2. Bottling Investments Group (BIG) – incorporating all company-owned bottling operations. At present, these facilities are located in parts of Africa, Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Oman, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam.

Effective January 1, 2021, the company also introduced nine new business units to eliminate the duplication of resources and allow new products to be introduced more quickly.

Business units are also based on geography and include:

  1. North America.
  2. Latin America.
  3. Europe.
  4. Africa.
  5. Eurasia and Middle East.
  6. Japan and South Korea.
  7. Greater China.
  8. ASEAN and South Pacific. 
  9. India and Southwest Asia.

Operational leaders of all geographic divisions and business-type units report to current President and COO Brian Smith.

Product-based divisions

Product-based categories help Coca-Cola manage its portfolio of around 200 brands. These categories include:

  • Coca-Cola.
  • Sparkling Flavors.
  • Hydration, Sports, Coffee and Tea.
  • Nutrition, Juice, Dairy, and Plant, and
  • Emerging.

Each category is led by a President who works across a networked organization to build Coca-Cola’s brand. Each also reports directly to the Chief Marketing Officer.

Function-based groups

Coca-Cola has a number of specialized function-based groups where the organization itself is divided according to shared employee skill sets and experience.

Functional groups include:

  • Marketing.
  • General Counsel. 
  • Security.
  • Investor Relations.
  • Global Community Affairs.
  • Global Finance Operations.
  • Mergers & Acquisitions.
  • Services Operations. 
  • Global Flavor Supply.
  • Communications, Sustainability, and Strategic Partnerships.
  • Technical and Innovation.
  • Accounting.
  • Corporate Development.
  • Securities and Capital Markets.

Comparison with Top Related Companies

  • PepsiCo: PepsiCo uses a mixed organizational structure, incorporating elements of both functional and divisional systems. It organizes its divisions based on both geography and products (e.g., Frito-Lay North America, PepsiCo Beverages North America, and Latin America). This structure allows PepsiCo to manage a diverse portfolio of products more efficiently than a strictly geographic or product-based structure.
  • Nestlé: As a global food and beverage company, Nestlé employs a matrix organizational structure. This structure is complex, combining geographic divisions with global product divisions (e.g., Waters, Nutrition, Milk products). Nestlé’s approach provides a balance of localized adaptation and global integration, which is crucial for managing its extensive range of products.
  • Dr Pepper Snapple Group: Before its acquisition by Keurig Green Mountain, Dr Pepper Snapple primarily used a functional organizational structure, with a focus on North America. This structure was simpler and more centralized, focusing on product lines rather than geographic divisions, which differs significantly from Coca-Cola’s emphasis on global geographic segmentation.

Similarities and Differences

  • Similarities: All these companies use elements of divisional structuring, either by geography or product or both, to effectively manage operations across diverse markets and extensive product lines.
  • Differences: Coca-Cola’s focus is more on geographic divisions, allowing it to tailor its strategies to regional markets. In contrast, PepsiCo and Nestlé use a mix of geographic and product-based divisions, providing them with the flexibility to focus simultaneously on product innovation and regional needs. Dr Pepper’s structure was more centralized, which can enhance efficiency but may limit market responsiveness.


  • Market Adaptation: Coca-Cola’s geographic divisional structure enables strong local presence and quick adaptation to changing local consumer preferences, which is vital for the beverage industry.
  • Innovation and Product Development: PepsiCo and Nestlé’s mixed structures facilitate both regional tailoring and global product innovation, potentially offering a broader innovation landscape compared to Coca-Cola’s primarily geographic focus.
  • Operational Efficiency and Control: Coca-Cola’s structure, while beneficial for local adaptation, might face challenges in global strategic alignment and operational efficiency compared to more centralized structures like that of Dr Pepper Snapple.

Key Highlights:

  • Matrix Organizational Structure: The Coca-Cola Company employs a matrix organizational structure that encompasses geographic divisions, product divisions, business-type units, and functional groups.
  • Geographic Divisions: Coca-Cola is divided into four geographic segments: Europe, Middle East & Africa (EMEA), Latin America, North America, and Asia Pacific.
  • Business-Type Units: Two non-geographic segments are Global Ventures (GV) for brand acquisitions and investments and Bottling Investments Group (BIG) for company-owned bottling operations.
  • New Business Units: Introduced in 2021, nine new business units were established to eliminate resource duplication and expedite the introduction of new products. These units are also based on geography.
  • Product-Based Divisions: Coca-Cola manages its extensive portfolio of around 200 brands through product-based categories such as Coca-Cola, Sparkling Flavors, Hydration, Sports, Coffee and Tea, Nutrition, Juice, Dairy, and Plant, and Emerging.
  • Function-Based Groups: Various functional groups are organized based on shared employee skill sets and experience. These groups include Marketing, General Counsel, Security, Investor Relations, Global Community Affairs, and more.
  • Operational Reporting: Operational leaders of geographic divisions, business-type units, and product-based categories report to the President and COO.
  • Marketing Leadership: Each product-based category is led by a President who reports directly to the Chief Marketing Officer, facilitating a networked approach to building the Coca-Cola brand.
  • Diverse Brand Portfolio: Coca-Cola’s complex structure helps manage the vast diversity of its product offerings, from traditional beverages to emerging trends.
  • Global Presence: The matrix structure allows Coca-Cola to manage its operations across the globe, catering to various regional preferences and market demands.

Read Next: Coca-Cola’s Business And Distribution, Coca-Cola Mission Statement and Vision, Coca-Cola Competitors, What Does Coca-Cola Own?, Coca-Cola PESTEL Analysis, Coca-Cola SWOT Analysis, Coca-Cola Vs. Pepsi.

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Coca-Cola Business Strategy

Coca-Cola follows a business strategy (implemented since 2006) where through its operating arm – the Bottling Investment Group – it invests initially in bottling partners operations. As they take off, Coca-Cola divests its equity stakes, and it establishes a franchising model, as long-term growth and distribution strategy.

Who Owns Coca-Cola

Who Owns Coca-Cola?Who Owns Coca-Cola?
Coca-Cola’s top investors include Warren Buffet’s company, Berkshire Hathaway, with 9.25% of shares, and other mutual funds like The Vanguard Group, holding 8.51% of shares, and BlackRock owning over 7.19% of shares of the company. Other individual investors like Herbert A. Allen, director of The Coca-Cola Company since 1982, and Barry Diller, Chairman of the Coca-Cola board since 2002. And former CEO Muhtar Kent. 

Coca-Cola Revenue

Coca-Cola RevenueCoca-Cola Revenue
Coca-Cola generated $45.75 billion in revenue in 2023, compared to over $43 billion in revenue in 2022, and to over $38 billion in 2021.

Coca-Cola Profits

Coca-Cola ProfitsCoca-Cola Profits
Coca-Cola generated $10.7 billion in profits in 2023, compared to $9.54 billion in net profits in 2022 and over $9.7 billion in net profits in 2021.

Coca-Cola Revenue vs. Profits

Coca-Cola Revenue vs. ProfitsCoca-Cola Revenue vs. Profits
Coca-Cola generated $45.75 billion in revenue in 2023, compared to over $43 billion in revenue in 2022, and $10.7 billion in profits in 2023, compared to over $9.5 billion in net profits in 2022.

Coca-Cola Employees

Coca-Cola EmployeesCoca-Cola Employees
Coca-Cola had 79,100 employees in 2023, compared to 82,500 employees in 2022, and 79,000 in 2021.

Coca-Cola Revenue Per Employee

Coca-Cola Revenue per EmployeeCoca-Cola Revenue per Employee
Coca-Cola generated $578,432 revenue per employee in 2023, compared to $521,261 in 2022, and $489,304 in 2021.

Coca-Cola Mission Statement

Coca-Cola’s Purpose is to “refresh the world. make a difference.” Its vision and mission are to “craft the brands and choice of drinks that people love, to refresh them in body & spirit. And done in ways that create a more sustainable business and better-shared future that makes a difference in people’s lives, communities, and our planet.”

Coca-Cola SWOT Analysis

Coca-Cola is the market leader of the soft drink industry. It is also the most widely recognized brand, with a Business Insider study revealing that a staggering 94% of the world population recognizes the red and white logo. However, Coca-Cola faces significant challenges with increasingly health-conscious consumers and less access to water resources.

Coca-Cola PESTEL Analysis


What Does Coca-Cola Own?

The Coca-Cola Company is an American multinational beverage corporation founded in 1892 by pharmacist Asa Griggs Candler. Many consumers associate the company with its signature soda in a red can or bottle. In truth, however, The Coca-Cola Company owns a plethora of soft drink, juice, tea, coffee, and other beverage brands. 

Coca-Cola Competitors

The Coca-Cola Company has 21 different billion-dollar brands or brands that generate more than $1 billion or more in revenue each year.  The company also sells its products in nearly every country in the world, with Cuba and North Korea the only two countries where it is not sold officially. What’s more, the Coca-Cola brand is worth $87.6 billion, making it one of the most valuable among all companies. Though these figures allow Coca-Cola to enjoy market dominance in many countries, the company is nevertheless subject to intense competition.

Coca-Cola vs. PepsiCo

Coca-Cola vs. PepsiCoCoca-Cola vs. PepsiCo
Coca-Cola generated $45.75 in revenue, compared to PepsiCo’s $91.47 billion in 2023. 

Who Owns Pepsi

Who Owns Pepsi?Who Owns Pepsi?
Pepsi is owned by PepsiCo, the holding company which owns many brands spanning from drinks to food & snacks and more. PepsiCo generated $91.47 billion in revenue in 2023, and $9.07 billion in profits for the same period. PepsiCo is primarily owned by institutional investors like The Vanguard Group (8.9%) and BlackRock (7.6%). Top individual investors comprise Robert Pohlad, the company’s board member; and the company’s CEO, Ramon Laguarta.

What Does PepsiCo Own?

PepsiCo was founded in 1902 by American pharmacist and businessman Caleb Bradham as the Pepsi-Cola Company. Bradham, who hoped to emulate the success of Coca-Cola, marketed the beverage from his pharmacy and registered a patent for its recipe the following year. Today, Pepsi is a global company with a portfolio of 23 billion-dollar brands, or brands earning more than $1 billion in annual revenue. Sixteen of these brands are beverage-related, while the remaining seven are associated with snacks and other food products.

Pepsi Competitors

In 1965, PepsiCo acquired Frito-Lay in what the chairmen of both companies called a “marriage made in heaven”. The resultant company transformed PepsiCo from a soft drink organization and set it on a path to becoming one of the world’s leading food and beverage companies.  Today, PepsiCo claims to operate in more than 200 countries and territories around the world with seven distinct divisions and many successful brands.

PepsiCo Revenue

PepsiCo RevenuePepsiCo Revenue
PepsiCo generated $91.47 billion in revenue in 2023, over $86 billion in revenue in 2022, over $79 billion in revenue in 2021, and over $70 billion in 2020.

PepsiCo Profits

PepsiCo ProfitsPepsiCo Profits
PepsiCo generated $9.07 billion in profits in 2023, compared to nearly $9 billion in profits in 2022, over $7.6 billion in profits in 2021 and over $7 billion in 2020.

Read Also: Coca-Cola Business Model, Coca-Cola SWOT Analysis, Coca-Cola PESTEL Analysis, Coca-Cola’s Business And Distribution Strategy, Coca-Cola Mission Statement and Vision Statement, Coca-Cola Vs. PepsiWhat Does Coca-Cola OwnCoca-Cola CompetitorsBusiness Model Of The PepsiCo.

Read Next: Pestel Analysis, SWOT Analysis, Porter’s Five Forces, STEEP Analysis, SOAR Analysis, BCG Matrix, Ansoff Matrix.

Types of Organizational Structures

Organizational Structures

Siloed Organizational Structures


In a functional organizational structure, groups and teams are organized based on function. Therefore, this organization follows a top-down structure, where most decision flows from top management to bottom. Thus, the bottom of the organization mostly follows the strategy detailed by the top of the organization.



Open Organizational Structures




In a flat organizational structure, there is little to no middle management between employees and executives. Therefore it reduces the space between employees and executives to enable an effective communication flow within the organization, thus being faster and leaner.

Connected Business Frameworks

Portfolio Management

Project portfolio management (PPM) is a systematic approach to selecting and managing a collection of projects aligned with organizational objectives. That is a business process of managing multiple projects which can be identified, prioritized, and managed within the organization. PPM helps organizations optimize their investments by allocating resources efficiently across all initiatives.

Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model

Harvard Business School professor Dr. John Kotter has been a thought-leader on organizational change, and he developed Kotter’s 8-step change model, which helps business managers deal with organizational change. Kotter created the 8-step model to drive organizational transformation.

Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model

The Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model was created by David Nadler and Michael Tushman at Columbia University. The Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model is a diagnostic tool that identifies problem areas within a company. In the context of business, congruence occurs when the goals of different people or interest groups coincide.

McKinsey’s Seven Degrees of Freedom

McKinsey’s Seven Degrees of Freedom for Growth is a strategy tool. Developed by partners at McKinsey and Company, the tool helps businesses understand which opportunities will contribute to expansion, and therefore it helps to prioritize those initiatives.

Mintzberg’s 5Ps

Mintzberg’s 5Ps of Strategy is a strategy development model that examines five different perspectives (plan, ploy, pattern, position, perspective) to develop a successful business strategy. A sixth perspective has been developed over the years, called Practice, which was created to help businesses execute their strategies.

COSO Framework

The COSO framework is a means of designing, implementing, and evaluating control within an organization. The COSO framework’s five components are control environment, risk assessment, control activities, information and communication, and monitoring activities. As a fraud risk management tool, businesses can design, implement, and evaluate internal control procedures.

TOWS Matrix

The TOWS Matrix is an acronym for Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Strengths. The matrix is a variation on the SWOT Analysis, and it seeks to address criticisms of the SWOT Analysis regarding its inability to show relationships between the various categories.

Lewin’s Change Management

Lewin’s change management model helps businesses manage the uncertainty and resistance associated with change. Kurt Lewin, one of the first academics to focus his research on group dynamics, developed a three-stage model. He proposed that the behavior of individuals happened as a function of group behavior.

Organizational Structure Case Studies

OpenAI Organizational Structure

OpenAI is an artificial intelligence research laboratory that transitioned into a for-profit organization in 2019. The corporate structure is organized around two entities: OpenAI, Inc., which is a single-member Delaware LLC controlled by OpenAI non-profit, And OpenAI LP, which is a capped, for-profit organization. The OpenAI LP is governed by the board of OpenAI, Inc (the foundation), which acts as a General Partner. At the same time, Limited Partners comprise employees of the LP, some of the board members, and other investors like Reid Hoffman’s charitable foundation, Khosla Ventures, and Microsoft, the leading investor in the LP.

Airbnb Organizational Structure

Airbnb follows a holacracy model, or a sort of flat organizational structure, where teams are organized for projects, to move quickly and iterate fast, thus keeping a lean and flexible approach. Airbnb also moved to a hybrid model where employees can work from anywhere and meet on a quarterly basis to plan ahead, and connect to each other.

Amazon Organizational Structure

The Amazon organizational structure is predominantly hierarchical with elements of function-based structure and geographic divisions. While Amazon started as a lean, flat organization in its early years, it transitioned into a hierarchical organization with its jobs and functions clearly defined as it scaled.

Apple Organizational Structure

Apple has a traditional hierarchical structure with product-based grouping and some collaboration between divisions.

Coca-Cola Organizational Structure

The Coca-Cola Company has a somewhat complex matrix organizational structure with geographic divisions, product divisions, business-type units, and functional groups.

Costco Organizational Structure

Costco has a matrix organizational structure, which can simply be defined as any structure that combines two or more different types. In this case, a predominant functional structure exists with a more secondary divisional structure.

Costco’s geographic divisions reflect its strong presence in the United States combined with its expanding global presence. There are six divisions in the country alone to reflect its standing as the source of most company revenue.

Compared to competitor Walmart, for example, Costco takes more a decentralized approach to management, decision-making, and autonomy. This allows the company’s stores and divisions to more flexibly respond to local market conditions.

Dell Organizational Structure

Dell has a functional organizational structure with some degree of decentralization. This means functional departments share information, contribute ideas to the success of the organization and have some degree of decision-making power.

eBay Organizational Structure

eBay was until recently a multi-divisional (M-form) organization with semi-autonomous units grouped according to the services they provided. Today, eBay has a single division called Marketplace, which includes eBay and its international iterations.

Facebook Organizational Structure

Facebook is characterized by a multi-faceted matrix organizational structure. The company utilizes a flat organizational structure in combination with corporate function-based teams and product-based or geographic divisions. The flat organization structure is organized around the leadership of Mark Zuckerberg, and the key executives around him. On the other hand, the function-based teams are based on the main corporate functions (like HR, product management, investor relations, and so on).

Goldman Sachs’ Organizational Structure

Goldman Sachs has a hierarchical structure with a clear chain of command and defined career advancement process. The structure is also underpinned by business-type divisions and function-based groups.

Google Organizational Structure

Google (Alphabet) has a cross-functional (team-based) organizational structure known as a matrix structure with some degree of flatness. Over the years, as the company scaled and it became a tech giant, its organizational structure is morphing more into a centralized organization.

IBM Organizational Structure

IBM has an organizational structure characterized by product-based divisions, enabling its strategy to develop innovative and competitive products in multiple markets. IBM is also characterized by function-based segments that support product development and innovation for each product-based division, which include Global Markets, Integrated Supply Chain, Research, Development, and Intellectual Property.

McDonald’s Organizational Structure

McDonald’s has a divisional organizational structure where each division – based on geographical location – is assigned operational responsibilities and strategic objectives. The main geographical divisions are the US, internationally operated markets, and international developmental licensed markets. And on the other hand, the hierarchical leadership structure is organized around regional and functional divisions.

McKinsey Organizational Structure

McKinsey & Company has a decentralized organizational structure with mostly self-managing offices, committees, and employees. There are also functional groups and geographic divisions with proprietary names.

Microsoft Organizational Structure

Microsoft has a product-type divisional organizational structure based on functions and engineering groups. As the company scaled over time it also became more hierarchical, however still keeping its hybrid approach between functions, engineering groups, and management.

Nestlé Organizational Structure

Nestlé has a geographical divisional structure with operations segmented into five key regions. For many years, Swiss multinational food and drink company Nestlé had a complex and decentralized matrix organizational structure where its numerous brands and subsidiaries were free to operate autonomously.

Nike Organizational Structure

Nike has a matrix organizational structure incorporating geographic divisions. Nike’s matrix structure is also present at the regional and sub-regional levels. Managerial responsibility is segmented according to business unit (apparel, footwear, and equipment) and function (human resources, finance, marketing, sales, and operations).

Patagonia Organizational Structure

Patagonia has a particular organizational structure, where its founder, Chouinard, disposed of the company’s ownership in the hands of two non-profits. The Patagonia Purpose Trust, holding 100% of the voting stocks, is in charge of defining the company’s strategic direction. And the Holdfast Collective, a non-profit, holds 100% of non-voting stocks, aiming to re-invest the brand’s dividends into environmental causes.

Samsung Organizational Structure

samsung-organizational-structure (1)samsung-organizational-structure (1)
Samsung has a product-type divisional organizational structure where products determine how resources and business operations are categorized. The main resources around which Samsung’s corporate structure is organized are consumer electronics, IT, and device solutions. In addition, Samsung leadership functions are organized around a few career levels grades, based on experience (assistant, professional, senior professional, and principal professional).

Sony Organizational Structure

Sony has a matrix organizational structure primarily based on function-based groups and product/business divisions. The structure also incorporates geographical divisions. In 2021, Sony announced the overhauling of its organizational structure, changing its name from Sony Corporation to Sony Group Corporation to better identify itself as the headquarters of the Sony group of companies skewing the company toward product divisions.

Starbucks Organizational Structure

Starbucks follows a matrix organizational structure with a combination of vertical and horizontal structures. It is characterized by multiple, overlapping chains of command and divisions.

Tesla Organizational Structure

Tesla is characterized by a functional organizational structure with aspects of a hierarchical structure. Tesla does employ functional centers that cover all business activities, including finance, sales, marketing, technology, engineering, design, and the offices of the CEO and chairperson. Tesla’s headquarters in Austin, Texas, decide the strategic direction of the company, with international operations given little autonomy.

Toyota Organizational Structure

Toyota has a divisional organizational structure where business operations are centered around the market, product, and geographic groups. Therefore, Toyota organizes its corporate structure around global hierarchies (most strategic decisions come from Japan’s headquarter), product-based divisions (where the organization is broken down, based on each product line), and geographical divisions (according to the geographical areas under management).

Walmart Organizational Structure

Walmart has a hybrid hierarchical-functional organizational structure, otherwise referred to as a matrix structure that combines multiple approaches. On the one hand, Walmart follows a hierarchical structure, where the current CEO Doug McMillon is the only employee without a direct superior, and directives are sent from top-level management. On the other hand, the function-based structure of Walmart is used to categorize employees according to their particular skills and experience.

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